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Vladavina prava v EU: kazenskopravne razsežnosti

O AVTORJU
Doctor of Law (Ljubljana), LL.M. (Cambridge), M.Phil. (Cambridge). Visiting Professor (in the title of Full Professor) at the Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana; member of the European Commission’s Expert Group on EU Criminal Policy; nina.persak@cantab.net. (The research behind this article has been partly conducted during the Senior Core Fellowship of the Institute for Advanced Study, Central European University, Budapest).; Master of Law – LL.M. (Harvard). Official of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers, Unit Justice Policy and Rule of Law, Brussels; joze.strus@post.harvard.edu.
AVTOR
Nina Peršak in Jože Štrus
SOAVTOR
TIP DOKUMENTA
Članki Zbornika znanstvenih razprav
KLJUČNE BESEDE
načelo vladavine prava, Okvir EU za krepitev načela pravne države, kazensko pravo EU, kazenskopravna politika, Pogodba o delovanju Evropske unije, načelo (kazenskopravne) škode, vzajemno zaupanje.
KEYWORDS
rule of law, Rule of Law Framework, EU criminal law, criminal law policy, Treaty on the Functioning of the EU, the harm principle, mutual trust
PUBLIKACIJA
Zbornik znanstvenih razprav
ZALOŽNIK
GV Založba
POVZETEK
Članek preučuje, kako se na področju pravosodja in kazenskopravnega delovanja Evropske unije uveljavlja temeljno načelo vladavine prava oziroma pravne države in s tem povezane izzive. Najprej je predstavljen pravni okvir načela vladavine prava, nato ukrepi za njegovo uresničitev v praksi, nazadnje pa različna razumevanja vloge načela v kontekstu kazenskega prava. Načelo se uresničuje v dialogu med Komisijo in državami članicami ter hkrati na ravni EU. Ta ima s Pogodbo o delovanju Evropske unije izrecno določene pristojnosti na področju kazenskega prava. Načelo vladavine prava se zato na ravni EU lahko kaže tudi kot orodje, s katerim je mogoče omejevati kazenskopravno pravodajno dejavnost organov EU. V članku so analizirane temeljne odločbe sodišča EU, ki kažejo na domet omejevalne vloge načela vladavine prava. Kazensko pravo EU je mogoče razumeti hkrati kot sredstvo za krepitev in sredstvo za šibitev načela vladavine prava. Krepitev kazenskopravnih pristojnosti je prinesla hkrati tudi vzpostavitev mehanizmov, ki povečujejo demokratično legitimnost zakonodaje EU, zlasti z okrepitvijo vloge Evropskega parlamenta. Na drugi strani ostajajo kazenskopravne pristojnosti trdno povezane s cilji in politikami EU, zato lahko kazensko pravo EU še vedno razumemo tudi kot orodje za doseganje ciljev politik EU. Članek prepoznava različne vidike vladavine prava v kontekstu kazenskega prava EU in razkriva, kateri izzivi na področju vladavine pravaše čakajo EU.
SUMMARY
The article examines the existing rule of law efforts and rule of law challenges in the EU, specifically those linked to the functioning of justice systems and EU criminal law. First, the legal framework of the principle of the rule of law is presented, then the measures for its realisation in practice, and finally the different understanding of the role of the principle in the context of criminal law. The principle is pursued in a dialogue between the Commission and the Member States and at the same time at the EU level. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union explicitly defined competences in the field of criminal law. Therefore, the principle of the rule of law can be regarded at the EU level also as a tool for limiting the criminal-law lawmaking activity of the EU bodies. The article analyses the fundamental judgments of the EU Court that demonstrate the scope of the restrictive role of the principle of the rule of law. EU criminal law can function as a means of strengthening and a means of undermining the rule of law. Strengthening of criminal jurisdiction has also brought about the creation of mechanisms that strengthen the democratic legitimacy of EU legislation, in particular by strengthening the role of the European Parliament. On the other hand, criminal law jurisdiction remains firmly linked to EU objectives and policies, and EU criminal law can still be understood primarily as a tool for achieving EU policy goals. The article identifies various aspects of the rule of law in the context of EU criminal law and concludes by revealing some outstanding rule-of-law challenges yet to be fully addressed in the EU.

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